Guide - Tenses & Moods

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The Past Participle

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Past Participles of regular verbs end in -do and are the equivalent of English words that end -ed e.g. hoped and lived.


What is it?

The Past Participle is a verb form that can function as an adjective or as part of a Perfect tense when used with the auxillary verb, haber.



How is it used?

  • To form the seven compound tenses.
  • To form the perfect indicative e.g. haber hablado (to have spoken).
  • To form the perfect participle e.g. habiendo hablado (having spoken).
  • To serve as an adjective e.g. la SeƱora González es muy conocida (Mrs González is very well-known). The adjective must match gender/number with the noun it modifies.
  • To express the result of an action with estar and sometimes quedar or quedarse e.g. la puerta está abierta (the door is open).
  • To express the passive voice with ser e.g. la ventana fue abierta por el ládron (the window was opened by the robber).


How are regular verbs conjugated?

For regular -ar verbs such as hablar you will drop the ending and add -ado to get hablado.

For regular -er and -ir verbs such as tener and vivir you will drop the ending and add -ido to get tenido and vivido.

Ending Verb Conjugation
-ar hablar hablado
-er comer comido
-ir vivir vivido


Anything else I should know?

Many Spanish verbs have irregular Past Participle endings e.g. abrir becomes abierto, escribir becomes escrito and ver becomes visto.


Present Participle   Indicative