Guide - Tenses & Moods
The Past Participle
Past Participles of regular verbs end in -do and are the equivalent of English words that end -ed e.g. hoped and lived.
What is it?
The Past Participle is a verb form that can function as an adjective or as part of a Perfect tense when used with the auxillary verb, haber.
How is it used?
- To form the seven compound tenses.
- To form the perfect indicative e.g. haber hablado (to have spoken).
- To form the perfect participle e.g. habiendo hablado (having spoken).
- To serve as an adjective e.g. la Señora González es muy conocida (Mrs González is very well-known). The adjective must match gender/number with the noun it modifies.
- To express the result of an action with estar and sometimes quedar or quedarse e.g. la puerta está abierta (the door is open).
- To express the passive voice with ser e.g. la ventana fue abierta por el ládron (the window was opened by the robber).
How are regular verbs conjugated?
For regular -ar verbs such as hablar you will drop the ending and add -ado to get hablado.
For regular -er and -ir verbs such as tener and vivir you will drop the ending and add -ido to get tenido and vivido.
Anything else I should know?
Many Spanish verbs have irregular Past Participle endings e.g. abrir becomes abierto, escribir becomes escrito and ver becomes visto.